Reduced diastolic function and left ventricular mass in HIV-negative preadolescent children exposed to antiretroviral therapy in utero

W. Todd Cade, Alan D. Waggoner, Sara Hubert, Melissa J. Krauss, Gautam K. Singh, E. Turner Overton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE: Abnormalities in left ventricular morphology and function have been reported in HIV-negative infants exposed to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in utero that persists throughout preschool age. The objective of this study was to determine if these abnormalities persist, resolve, or worsen during preadolescence. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observation study. METHODS: Thirty HIV-negative children born to HIV-positive women and exposed to ART in utero (mean age 8±2 years, 37% female, 74% African-American) and 30 HIV-negative children born to HIV-negative women (mean age 8±3 years, 37% female, 76% African-American) underwent two-dimensional Doppler, tissue Doppler, and strain echocardiography to evaluate left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. RESULTS: Weight, body surface area, heart rate and blood pressure were similar between groups. For the ART-exposed group, left ventricular mass index was lower (60±9 vs. 67±12g/m, P<0.02) and early diastolic annular velocity was lower (15.0±2.2 vs. 16.3±2.5cm/s, P<0.03) compared to controls. Left ventricular systolic function did not differ between groups. Lower maternal third trimester CD4 count was associated with lower early diastolic annular velocity; other non-HIV-related variables including cocaine use and increased maternal age correlated with lower left ventricular mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormalities in left ventricular systolic performance previously reported in HIV-negative infants and preschool aged children exposed to ART in utero were not apparent in preadolescent children. Left ventricular diastolic relaxation was reduced compared with controls suggesting residual effects of ART exposure on left ventricular diastolic function. Larger, longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm these observations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2053-2058
Number of pages6
Issue number16
StatePublished - Oct 23 2012


  • antiretroviral therapy
  • children
  • diastolic
  • heart
  • in utero


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