PURPOSE: To determine the safety and diagnostic accuracy of a provocative protocol with heparin and urokinase to induce bleeding and determine the source in patients with chronic gastrointestinal hemorrhage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine patients had gastrointestinal bleeding from an indeterminate source and had negative results from esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, small-bowel examination, and angiography. Ten provocative bleeding studies were performed prospectively. Patients had no clinical evidence of bleeding within 2 days before the study. Intravenous administration of heparin and urokinase was performed systemically during a 4-hour period while scintigraphy was performed continuously. Mesenteric angiography was performed immediately in patients in whom substantial gastrointestinal bleeding was detected at scintigraphy. RESULTS: The provocative protocol was successful in inducing scintigraphically detectable hemorrhage in four (40%) studies within 4 hours. In two of these four studies, the source of hemorrhage was determined and treated with embolization or surgery. Three (30%) studies demonstrated scintigraphic evidence of hemorrhage only at delayed imaging (8-24 hours after initiation of the study. The remaining three (30%) studies did not show active bleeding. No complications occurred, including hemodynamic instability or uncontrollable decreases in hematocrit. CONCLUSION: Since this protocol with heparin and urokinase enabled determination of the bleeding source in only two of 10 studies, protocol modification are necessary before this intervention is used widely.
|Number of pages||6|
|State||Published - Apr 1 1998|
- Gastrointestinal tract, angiography
- Gastrointestinal tract, hemorrhage
- Gastrointestinal tract, radionuclide studies
- Interventional procedures, experimental