We report two cases of bilateral diffuse bronchiectasis in which early recurrence of the original lung disease occurred after bilateral lung transplantation (LT). Patient 1 underwent cadaveric LT. Recurrent bronchiectasis occurred 4 months later, and he died 6 years after LT. Patient 2 underwent living-related lobar LT, bronchiectasis relapsed 4 months later, and he died 13 months after LT. Both cases were finally diagnosed as bilateral diffuse bronchiectasis by the pathological features of the explanted lungs: infiltration of inflammatory cells predominantly in the conducting airways with dilation of the bronchi of bilateral lungs and scarcity of foamy macrophages in the wall of the respiratory bronchioles. Similar pathological features were seen in autopsy specimens from patient 1 and a transbronchial biopsy specimen from patient 2. LT should be carried out with caution in patients with bilateral diffuse bronchiectasis. When performing LT in such patients, it is suggested that sinusitis should be controlled perioperatively.
- Diffuse panbrochiolitis
- Lung transplantation