Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) comprises around 6% of all non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) diagnoses. In younger patients, age less than 60 to 65 years, aggressive induction often followed by consolidation with autologous stem cell transplant has suggested improved outcomes in this population. Less intensive therapies in older patients often followed by maintenance have been studied or are under active investigation. However, despite recent advances, MCL remains incurable, with a median overall survival of around five years. Patients with high-risk disease have particularly poor outcomes. Treatment varies widely across institutions, and to date no randomized trials comparing intensive vs less intensive approaches have been reported. Although recent data have highlighted the heterogeneity of MCL outcomes, patient assessment for treatment selection has largely been driven by patient age with little regard to fitness, disease biology, or disease risk. One critical advance is the finding that minimal residual disease status (MRD) after induction correlates with long-term outcomes. As such, its use as a potential end point could inform clinical trial design. In order to more rapidly improve the outcomes of MCL patients, clinical trials are needed that prospectively stratify patients on the basis of MCL biology and disease risk, incorporate novel agents, and use MRD to guide the need for additional therapy.