Recent studies of temporary threshold shift (TTS) and permanent threshold shift (PTS) in animals

William W. Clark

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107 Scopus citations


It is well known that excessive exposure to noise results in temporary and/or permanent changes in hearing sensitivity in both human and animal subjects. The purpose of this review is to describe the major findings from laboratory studies of experimentally induced hearing losses, both temporary and permanent, resulting from exposure to noise in animal subjects which have been published since the report of Kryter et al. (1966). The data reviewed support the following general statements: (1) The chinchilla is the most widely used and most appropriate animal model for studies of noise-induced hearing loss; (2) with continuous exposures to moderate-level noise, thresholds reach asymptotic levels (ATS) within 18–24 h; (3) permanent threshold shifts, however, depend upon the level, frequency, and the duration of exposure; (4) below a “critical lever” of about 115 dB, permanent threshold shift (PTS) and cell loss are generally related to the total energy in continuous exposures; (5) periodic rest periods inserted in an exposure schedule are protective and result in less hearing loss and cochlear damage than equal energy continuous exposures; and (6) under some schedules of periodic exposure, threshold shifts increase over the first few days of exposure, then recover as much as 30 dB as the exposure continues.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)155-163
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the Acoustical Society of America
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 1991


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