Myocarditis is one of the most common causes of a pediatric dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype. While pediatric myocarditis is generally associated with resolution of myocardial dysfunction, approximately 30% of pediatric myocarditis patients will die or undergo heart transplantation. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly being utilized as the primary diagnositic modality in adult myocarditis. Animal studies and adult experience suggest that autoimmunity may contribute to cardiac dysfunction in myocarditis. These adult findings have yet to be evaluated fully in children, but may have an impact on the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric myocarditis in the future. The recent availability of pediatric specific ventricular assist devices may offer the potential for long-term support to allow for a greater chance for myocardial recovery.
- Dilated cardiomyopathy