Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are germline-encoded sensors best characterized for their critical role in host defense. However, there is accumulating evidence that organ transplantation induces the release or display of molecular patterns of cellular injury and death that trigger PRR-mediated inflammatory responses. There are also new insights that indicate PRRs are able to distinguish between self and non-self, suggesting the existence of non-clonal mechanisms of allorecognition. Collectively, these reports have spurred considerable interest into whether PRRs or their ligands can be targeted to promote transplant survival. This review examines the mounting evidence that PRRs play in transplant-mediated inflammation. Given the large number of PRRs, we will focus on members from four families: the complement system, toll-like receptors, the formylated peptide receptor, and scavenger receptors through examining reports of their activity in experimental models of cellular and solid organ transplantation as well as in the clinical setting.