Despite being primarily a research tool, positron emission tomography (PET) has seen slow but steady growth in the clinical management of the cardiac patient. The two major clinical applications of cardiac PET are regional myocardial perfusion imaging to determine the presence and severity of coronary artery disease and metabolic imaging to differentiate viable from nonviable myocardium in patients with ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. Indeed, PET with either nitrogen 13 ammonia or rubidium 82 may offer advantages over current single photon emission computed tomography approaches to assess myocardial perfusion. PET with fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose is considered the current gold standard for identifying viable myocardium. Finally, the use of PET to quantify myocardial perfusion, metabolism, and innervation has led to key insights into the role of altered microvascular function, substrate metabolism, and neuronal function in a variety of cardiac disease processes.