Background. There is no consensus on rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) dose used for induction immunosuppression in pediatric kidney transplants. We aimed to identify whether a lower rATG dose provides safe and effective immunosuppression compared with a higher dose. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed all first-time kidney transplant recipients (aged <21 y) in the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies registry since 1998 on mycophenolate mofetil- and tacrolimus-based immunosuppression with rATG induction. An a priori cutoff of 7.5 mg/kg cumulative rATG dose was used to identify low (<7.5 mg/kg) and high (≥7.5 mg/kg) exposure groups. Primary outcome was time to first-acute rejection episode. Secondary outcomes included graft function, patient survival, hospitalizations due to infections, and time to first-posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder episode. Results. Four hundred fifty-five patients met inclusion criteria (59% male, 49% whites, 26% blacks, 38% living donor source). Median cumulative rATG dose was 6.8 mg/kg with a median of 5 doses and a median 1.5 mg/kg/dose introduced at a median of postoperative 0 days. Sixty-four percent received <7.5 mg/kg total rATG. There was no difference in age at transplant, gender, race, end-stage renal disease causes, or HLA mismatch among groups. Time to first-acute rejection was similar (P = 0.07). There was no significant difference in graft or patient survival or time to posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Hospitalization for infection rates was similar. Conclusions. These data demonstrate a wide variation in cumulative rATG induction dose. A smaller rATG dose <7.5 mg/kg may provide effective and safe immunosuppression compared with a higher dose.