Real-World Outcomes of Patients with Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated with Programmed Cell Death Protein 1 Inhibitors in the Year Following U.S. Regulatory Approval

Sean Khozin, Kenneth R. Carson, Jizu Zhi, Melisa Tucker, Shannon E. Lee, David E. Light, Melissa D. Curtis, Marta Bralic, Irene Kaganman, Anala Gossai, Philip Hofmeister, Aracelis Z. Torres, Rebecca A. Miksad, Gideon Michael Blumenthal, Richard Pazdur, Amy P. Abernethy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Evidence from cancer clinical trials has strong internal validity but can be difficult to generalize to real-world patient populations. Here we analyzed real-world outcomes of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (mNSCLC) treated with programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitors in the first year following U.S. regulatory approval. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study leveraged electronic health record (EHR) data collected during routine patient care in community cancer care clinics. The cohort included patients with mNSCLC who had received nivolumab or pembrolizumab for metastatic disease (n = 1,344) with >1 EHR-documented visit from January 1, 2011, to March 31, 2016. Patients with a > 90-day gap between advanced disease diagnosis and first EHR structured data entry were excluded. Results: Estimated median overall survival (OS) was 8.0 months (95% confidence interval 7.4–9.0 months). Estimated median OS was 4.7 months (3.4–6.6) for patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement- and epidermal growth factor receptor mutation-positive tumors, and 8.6 months (7.7–10.6) for patients without such mutations. Age at PD-1 inhibitor initiation or line of therapy did not impact OS. Conclusion: This analysis suggests OS in real-world patients may be shorter than in conventional clinical trial patient cohorts, potentially due to narrow trial eligibility criteria. The lack of difference in OS by line of therapy or age at immunotherapy initiation suggests sustained benefit of PD-1 inhibitors in multitreated patients with mNSCLC and that age is not a predictor of outcome. Further studies are underway in patients with comorbidities, organ dysfunction, and multiple prior therapies. Implications for Practice: This study evaluated data derived from electronic health records of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer treated with programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitors in the year following regulatory approval. This real-world cohort had shorter overall survival (OS) indexed to PD-1 inhibitor initiation than reported in clinical trials. Late-line treatment did not influence OS, and patients aged >75 at immunotherapy initiation did not have worse outcomes than younger patients. As new therapies enter clinical practice, real-world data can complement clinical trial evidence providing information on generalizability and helping inform clinical treatment decisions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)648-656
Number of pages9
JournalOncologist
Volume24
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2019

Keywords

  • Electronic health records
  • Nivolumab
  • Non-small cell lung cancer
  • Overall survival
  • Pembrolizumab
  • Real-world evidence

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