Real-World Experience of Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate with Patients on Anticoagulation Therapy

Deepak K. Agarwal, Tim Large, Christa L. Stoughton, Joshua M. Heiman, Charles U. Nottingham, Marcelino E. Rivera, Amy E. Krambeck

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Background: Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) is a highly effective procedure for benign prostatic hyperplasia that is size independent and has been recommended for patients necessitating antiplatelet (AP) and anticoagulant (AC) medications. Although HoLEP is feasible in AP/AC patients, there is a lack of published results on real-world outcomes of patients on AP/AC therapy undergoing HoLEP. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective review of our institutional HoLEP database of demographics, perioperative and postoperative data, and outcomes of patients on AP and AC therapy compared with none. We also further stratified patients on warfarin compared with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Results: Of 472 patients who underwent HoLEP at our institution from July 2018 to December 2019 with data on AP/AC drugs, 30 (6.3%) were on AP and 65 (17.2%) were on AC. One patient continued AP (3.3%), six patients (9.2%) were bridged on AC, and one patient (1.5%) continued AC through the time of HoLEP at the discretion of the prescribing provider. Preoperatively, only age was significantly different among the three groups (p < 0.001). There were no intraoperative differences. Postoperatively, there was a higher 90-day complication rate in AP and AC groups (p = 0.035), but not an increase in emergency department (ED) visits (p = 0.557) or Clavien ≥3 complications (p = 0.16). In comparison of patients on warfarin with DOAC, there was a lower rate of successful voiding trial (p = 0.009), higher 90-day complications (p = 0.003), and more ED visits (p = 0.003) in the warfarin group. Conclusions: HoLEP is safe and effective for patients who require AP or AC therapy. There is no increase in serious complications or worsened postoperative voiding parameters. Of patients on AC, those on DOAC have better outcomes compared with warfarin.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1036-1041
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Endourology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2021


  • anticoagulation
  • benign prostatic hyperplasia
  • holmium laser
  • outcomes
  • prostate enucleation


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