RNA-binding protein 47 (RBM47) is required for embryonic endoderm development, but a role in adult intestine is unknown. We studied intestine-specific Rbm47-knockout mice (Rbm47-IKO) following intestinal injury and made crosses into ApcMin/+ mice to examine alterations in intestinal proliferation, response to injury, and tumorigenesis. We also interrogated human colorectal polyps and colon carcinoma tissue. Rbm47-IKO mice exhibited increased proliferation and abnormal villus morphology and cellularity, with corresponding changes in Rbm47-IKO organoids. Rbm47-IKO mice adapted to radiation injury and were protected against chemical-induced colitis, with Rbm47-IKO intestine showing upregulation of antioxidant and Wnt signaling pathways as well as stem cell and developmental genes. Furthermore, Rbm47-IKO mice were protected against colitis-associated cancer. By contrast, aged Rbm47-IKO mice developed spontaneous polyposis, and Rbm47-IKO ApcMin/+ mice manifested an increased intestinal polyp burden. RBM47 mRNA was decreased in human colorectal cancer versus paired normal tissue, along with alternative splicing of tight junction protein 1 mRNA. Public databases revealed stage-specific reduction in RBM47 expression in colorectal cancer associated independently with decreased overall survival. These findings implicate RBM47 as a cell-intrinsic modifier of intestinal growth, inflammatory, and tumorigenic pathways.