The three RAS genes (HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS) comprise the most commonly mutated oncogene family in human cancer. RAS genes encode highly related small GTPases that are key regulators of cytoplasmic signaling networks that include the Raf-MEK-ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and the PI3K-Akt signaling cascade. There is increasing evidence that all RAS mutations are not created equal and that mutation specific therapies may be needed, that there will not be a one size fits all anti-Ras therapy. In this chapter, we summarize the frequency and nature of RAS mutations in human cancers, with a focus on the two cancers with the highest frequency of RAS mutations, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (95 %), and colorectal (40 %) cancers.
|Title of host publication||Ras Superfamily Small G Proteins|
|Subtitle of host publication||Biology and Mechanisms 1: General Features, Signaling|
|Number of pages||15|
|ISBN (Print)||3709118050, 9783709118054|
|State||Published - May 1 2014|
- Colorectal cancer
- Pancreatic cancer