Molybdenum cofactor is essential for the activity of multiple enzymes including xanthine dehydrogenase. Molybdenum cofactor deficiencies are rare inborn errors of metabolism. Clinically, they present with intractable seizures, axial hypotonia, and hyperekplexia. They further develop cerebral atrophy, microcephaly, global developmental delay and ectopia lentis. We report a 5-year-old female with clinically, biochemically and genetically confirmed molybdenum cofactor deficiency type B due to compound heterozygous pathogenic variants in the molybdenum cofactor synthesis 2 gene found on whole exome sequencing. The xanthine stones were a key clue towards diagnosis. No mutation was detected in XDH gene. Implementation of a low-purine diet, urine alkalization and hydration lead to a near complete decrease in stone burden. The patient received pyridoxine supplementation with improvement in energy levels and attentiveness. Despite reports of high mortality at a young age, our patient was 9 years old at the time of this writing. Molybdenum cofactor deficiencies should be considered in neonates with early-onset seizures, hypotonia, and feeding difficulties. Screening with serum uric acid levels and empiric treatment may be considered while awaiting genetic results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)378-382
Number of pages5
JournalCEN case reports
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 1 2021


  • Molybdenum cofactor deficiency
  • Xanthinuria


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