Rapidly Customizable, Scalable 3D-Printed Wireless Optogenetic Probes for Versatile Applications in Neuroscience

Juhyun Lee, Kyle E. Parker, Chinatsu Kawakami, Jenny R. Kim, Raza Qazi, Junwoo Yea, Shun Zhang, Choong Yeon Kim, John Bilbily, Jianliang Xiao, Kyung In Jang, Jordan G. McCall, Jae Woong Jeong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Optogenetics is an advanced neuroscience technique that enables the dissection of neural circuitry with high spatiotemporal precision. Recent advances in materials and microfabrication techniques have enabled minimally invasive and biocompatible optical neural probes, thereby facilitating in vivo optogenetic research. However, conventional fabrication techniques rely on cleanroom facilities, which are not easily accessible and are expensive to use, making the overall manufacturing process inconvenient and costly. Moreover, the inherent time-consuming nature of current fabrication procedures impede the rapid customization of neural probes in between in vivo studies. Here, a new technique stemming from 3D printing technology for the low-cost, mass production of rapidly customizable optogenetic neural probes is introduced. The 3D printing production process, on-the-fly design versatility, and biocompatibility of 3D printed optogenetic probes as well as their functional capabilities for wireless in vivo optogenetics is detailed. Successful in vivo studies with 3D printed devices highlight the reliability of this easily accessible and flexible manufacturing approach that, with advances in printing technology, can foreshadow its widespread applications in low-cost bioelectronics in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2004285
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number46
StatePublished - Nov 11 2020


  • 3D printing
  • microfabrication
  • neural probes
  • optogenetics
  • wireless probes


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