The primary method for probing DNA replication dynamics is DNA fiber analysis, which utilizes thymidine analog incorporation into nascent DNA, followed by immunofluorescent microscopy of DNA fibers. Besides being time-consuming and prone to experimenter bias, it is not suitable for studying DNA replication dynamics in mitochondria or bacteria, nor is it adaptable for higher-throughput analysis. Here, we present mass spectrometry–based analysis of nascent DNA (MS-BAND) as a rapid, unbiased, quantitative alternative to DNA fiber analysis. In this method, incorporation of thymidine analogs is quantified from DNA using triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. MS-BAND accurately detects DNA replication alterations in both the nucleus and mitochondria of human cells, as well as bacteria. The high-throughput capability of MS-BAND captured replication alterations in an E. coli DNA damage-inducing gene library. Therefore, MS-BAND may serve as an alternative to the DNA fiber technique, with potential for high-throughput analysis of replication dynamics in diverse model systems.