Randomized Phase III Study of Enzalutamide Compared With Enzalutamide Plus Abiraterone for Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (Alliance A031201 Trial)

Michael J. Morris, Glenn Heller, David W. Hillman, Olivia Bobek, Charles Ryan, Emmanuel S. Antonarakis, Alan H. Bryce, Olwen Hahn, Himisha Beltran, Andrew J. Armstrong, Lawrence Schwartz, Lionel D. Lewis, Jan H. Beumer, Brooke Langevin, Eric C. Mcgary, Paul T. Mehan, Amir Goldkorn, Bruce J. Roth, Han Xiao, Colleen WattMary Ellen Taplin, Susan Halabi, Eric J. Small

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


PURPOSEEnzalutamide and abiraterone both target androgen receptor signaling but via different mechanisms. The mechanism of action of one drug may counteract the resistance pathways of the other. We sought to determine whether the addition of abiraterone acetate and prednisone (AAP) to enzalutamide prolongs overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in the first-line setting.PATIENTS AND METHODSMen with untreated mCRPC were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive first-line enzalutamide with or without AAP. The primary end point was OS. Toxicity, prostate-specific antigen declines, pharmacokinetics, and radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) were also examined. Data were analyzed using an intent-to-treat approach. The Kaplan-Meier estimate and the stratified log-rank statistic were used to compare OS between treatments.RESULTSIn total, 1,311 patients were randomly assigned: 657 to enzalutamide and 654 to enzalutamide plus AAP. OS was not statistically different between the two arms (median, 32.7 [95% CI, 30.5 to 35.4] months for enzalutamide v 34.2 [95% CI, 31.4 to 37.3] months for enzalutamide and AAP; hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; one-sided P =.03; boundary nominal significance level =.02). rPFS was longer in the combination arm (median rPFS, 21.3 [95% CI, 19.4 to 22.9] months for enzalutamide v 24.3 [95% CI, 22.3 to 26.7] months for enzalutamide and AAP; HR, 0.86; two-sided P =.02). However, pharmacokinetic clearance of abiraterone was 2.2- to 2.9-fold higher when administered with enzalutamide, compared with clearance values for abiraterone alone.CONCLUSIONThe addition of AAP to enzalutamide for first-line treatment of mCRPC was not associated with a statistically significant benefit in OS. Drug-drug interactions between the two agents resulting in increased abiraterone clearance may partly account for this result, although these interactions did not prevent the combination regimen from having more nonhematologic toxicity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3352-3362
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Issue number18
StatePublished - Jun 20 2023


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