Background - Although clopidogrel is used to prevent subacute stent thrombosis, its safety and efficacy have not been compared with ticlopidine in a randomized manner in the United States. Methods and Results - Patients with successful intracoronary stent implantation were randomly assigned to therapy with ticlopidine or clopidogrel. Loading doses were administered immediately after the procedure, and the drugs were prescribed for 2 weeks. One thousand sixteen patients were enrolled: 522 patients were randomly assigned to ticlopidine therapy and 494 to clopidogrel. High-risk characteristics included recent myocardial infarction in 41.4% of the cases, angiographically evident thrombus in 20.9%, and abrupt or threatened closure in 3.64%. An intravenous glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor was used in 48.2% of the cases, and thrombocytopenia occurred in 1.43% of these patients. Failure to complete 2 weeks of therapy occurred in 3.64% of the patients treated with ticlopidine and in 1.62% of the patients treated with clopidogrel (P=0.043). Within 30 days, thrombosis of the stent occurred in 1.92% of the patients in the ticlopidine group and in 2.02% of the clopidogrel group (P=0.901). A major adverse cardiac event occurred in 4.60% of patients receiving ticlopidine and in 3.85% of patients receiving clopidogrel (P=0.551). Conclusions - Clopidogrel is better tolerated than ticlopidine during a 2-week regimen after intracoronary stent implantation. Combining either thienopyridine with an intravenous platelet IIb/IIIa inhibitor appears to be safe. When applied to a broad spectrum of patients receiving stent implantation, clopidogrel confers similar protection as ticlopidine against subacute stent thrombosis and major adverse cardiac events.