Theoretical investigations suggest that gold nanoparticle (GNP)-mediated radiation dose enhancement and radiosensitization can be maximized when photons interact with gold, predominantly via photoelectric absorption. This makes ytterbium (Yb)-169, which emits photons with an average energy of 93 keV (just above the K-edge of gold), an ideal radioisotope for such purposes. This investigation tests the feasibility of tumor-specific prostate brachytherapy achievable with Yb-169 and actively targeted GNPs, using an external beam surrogate of Yb-169 created from an exotic filter material - erbium (Er) and a standard copper-filtered 250 kVp beam. The current in vitro study shows that treatment of prostate cancer cells with goserelin-conjugated gold nanorods (gGNRs) promotes gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor-mediated internalization and enhances radiosensitivity to both Er-filtered and standard 250 kVp beams, 14 and 10%, respectively. While the degree of GNP-mediated radiosensitization as seen from the in vitro study may be considered moderate, the current in vivo study shows that gGNR treatment plus Er-filtered x-ray irradiation is considerably more effective than radiation treatment alone (p < 0.0005), resulting in a striking reduction in tumor volume (50% smaller) 2 months following treatment. Overall, the current results provide strong evidence for the feasibility of tumor-specific prostate brachytherapy with Yb-169 and gGNRs.