Multidrug resistance (MDE) mediated by overexpression of MDR1 P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is one of the best characterized transporter-mediated barriers to successful chemotherapy in cancer patients. Thus, noninvasive interrogation of Pgp-mediated transport activity in vivo would be beneficial in guiding therapeutic choices. Both small organic medicinals as well as metal complexes characterized as transport substrates for Pgp are amenable to incorporation of PET or SPECT radionuclides and may enable noninvasive imaging of Pgp in cancer patients. Toward this objective, clinically approved agents, exemplified by 99mTc-Sestamibi and 99mTetrofosmin, have already shown promise for the functional evaluation of Pgp-mediated transport activity in human tumors in vivo. In addition, selected agents from an upcoming class of substituted Schiff-base gallium(III) complexes containing an N 4O2 donor core in their organic scaffold and capable of generating both SPECT and PET radiopharmaceuticals have also been shown to be promising for noninvasive assessment of Pgp activity in vitro and in vivo.