OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate initial experience with 18F-FDG PET/CT after pulmonary radiofrequency ablation of stage IA non-small cell lung cancer to determine whether treatment success or residual disease can be predicted with early postablation PET. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Thirty patients with medically inoperable stage IA non-small cell lung cancer (12 men, 18 women; median age, 76 years; range, 60-87 years) underwent outpatient CT-guided radiofrequency ablation over a 33-month period. Mean tumor size was 2.0 cm (range, 1.3-2.9 cm). PET/CT was performed within 60 days before radiofrequency ablation (RFA), within 4 days after RFA, and 6 months after RFA. Metabolic response was categorized as complete response or partial or no response at early post-RFA PET/CT and complete response, partial response, or progressive metabolic disease at 6-month post- RFA PET/CT and was compared with the 1-year clinical event rate (death, disease progression at contrast-enhanced CT, or repeat ablation). RESULTS. Early PET/CT images, obtained within 4 days of RFA, were evaluable for 26 patients (23 at 6 months). Patients with a complete metabolic response at early PET/CT had a 1-year event rate of 43%, whereas those with partial or no response or disease progression had a 1-year event rate of 67% (p = 0.27). Patients with a complete metabolic response at 6-month PET/CT had a 1-year event rate of 0%. Those with a partial response and those with disease progression had an overall event rate of 75% (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION. Early post-RFA PET/CT is not necessary and 6-month post-RFA PET/CT findings correlate better with clinical outcome at 1 year.
- Non-small cell lung cancer
- Radiofrequency ablation