Background. Since the Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) allocation system was implemented, the proportion of simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation (SLKT) has increased significantly. However, whether racial/ethnic disparities exist in access to SLKT and post-SLKT survival remains understudied. Methods. A retrospective cohort of patients aged ≥18 years with renal dysfunction on the liver transplant (LT) waiting list was obtained from Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network. Renal dysfunction was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at listing for LT. Multilevel time-To-competing-events regression adjusting for center effect was used to examine the likelihood of receiving SLKT. Inverse probability of treatment weighted survival analyses were used to analyze posttransplant mortality outcomes. Results. For patients with renal dysfunction at listing for LT, not listed for simultaneous kidney transplant, non-Hispanic black (NHB) and Hispanic patients were more likely to receive SLKT than non-Hispanic white (NHW) patients (NHB: multivariable-Adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-4.65; Hispanic: AHR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.14-3.60). For post-SLKT outcomes, compared to NHW patients, NHB patients had a lower mortality risk before 24 months (aHR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.65-0.97) but had a higher mortality risk (aHR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.59-2.55) afterward; in contrast, Hispanic patients had a lower overall mortality risk than NHW patients (aHR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.51-0.74). Conclusions. In the MELD era, racial/ethnic differences exist in access and survival of SLKT for patients with renal dysfunction at listing for LT. Future studies are warranted to examine whether these differences remain in the post-SLK allocation policy era.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1663-1674
Number of pages12
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2019


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