Race, Natriuretic Peptides, and High-Carbohydrate Challenge: A Clinical Trial

Nirav Patel, Griffin K. Russell, Kiran Musunuru, Orlando M. Gutierrez, Ganesh Halade, Vasundhara Kain, Wenjian Lv, Sumanth D. Prabhu, Kenneth B. Margulies, Thomas P. Cappola, Garima Arora, Thomas J. Wang, Pankaj Arora

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Rationale: Lower NP (natriuretic peptide) levels may contribute to the development of cardiometabolic diseases. Blacks have lower NP levels than middle-Aged and older white adults. A high-carbohydrate challenge causes an upregulation of a negative ANP regulator microRNA-425 (miR-425), which reduces ANP (atrial-NP) levels in whites. Objectives: We designed a prospective trial to study racial differences in (1) NP levels among young adults, (2) NP response to a high-carbohydrate challenge, and (3) explore underlying mechanisms for race-based differences. Methods and Results: Healthy self-identified blacks and whites received 3 days of study diet followed by a high-carbohydrate challenge. Gene expression from whole blood RNA was assessed in the trial participants. Additionally, atrial and ventricular tissue samples Myocardial Applied Genomics Network repository were examined for NP system gene expression. Among 72 healthy participants, we found that B-Type-NP, NT-proBNP (N-Terminal-pro-B-Type NP), and MRproANP (midregional-pro-ANP) levels were 30%, 47%, and 18% lower in blacks compared with whites (P≤0.01), respectively. The decrease in MRproANP levels in response to a high-carbohydrate challenge differed by race (blacks 23% [95% CI, 19%-27%] versus whites 34% [95% CI, 31%-38]; Pinteraction<0.001), with no change in NT-proBNP levels. We did not observe any racial differences in expression of genes encoding for NPs (NPPA/NPPB) or NP signaling (NPR1) in atrial and ventricular tissues. NP processing (corin), clearance (NPR3), and regulation (miR-425) genes were ≈3.5-, ≈2.5-, and ≈2-fold higher in blacks than whites in atrial tissues, respectively. We also found a 2-And 8-fold higher whole blood RNA expression of gene encoding for Neprilysin (MME) and miR-425 among blacks than whites. Conclusions: Racial differences in NP levels are evident in young, healthy adults suggesting a state of NP deficiency exists in blacks. Impaired NP processing and clearance may contribute to race-based NP differences. Higher miR-425 levels in blacks motivate additional studies to understand differences in NP downregulation after physiological perturbations. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03072602. Unique identifier: NCT03072602.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)957-968
Number of pages12
JournalCirculation research
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 8 2019


  • carbohydrate
  • gene expression
  • glucose
  • microRNA
  • natriuretic peptide


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