Quantitative tumor depth determination using dual wavelength excitation fluorescence

Christine M. O'Brien, Kevin W. Bishop, Haini Zhang, Xiao Xu, Leo Shmuylovich, Elizabeth Conley, Karen Nwosu, Kathleen Duncan, Suman B. Mondal, Gail Sudlow, Samuel Achilefu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Quantifying solid tumor margins with fluorescence-guided surgery approaches is a challenge, particularly when using near infrared (NIR) wavelengths due to increased penetration depths. An NIR dual wavelength excitation fluorescence (DWEF) approach was developed that capitalizes on the wavelength-dependent attenuation of light in tissue to determine fluorophore depth. A portable dual wavelength excitation fluorescence imaging system was built and tested in parallel with an NIR tumor-targeting fluorophore in tissue mimicking phantoms, chicken tissue, and in vivo mouse models of breast cancer. The system showed high accuracy in all experiments. The low cost and simplicity of this approach make it ideal for clinical use.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5628-5642
Number of pages15
JournalBiomedical Optics Express
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2022


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