Therapy-related acute myelogenous leukemia (t-AML) is an important late adverse effect of alkylator chemotherapy. Susceptibility to t-AML has a genetic component, yet specific genetic variants that influence susceptibility are poorly understood. We analyzed an F2 intercross (n = 282 mice) between mouse strains resistant or susceptible to t-AML induced by the alkylator ethyl-N- nitrosourea (ENU) to identify genes that regulate t-AML susceptibility. Each mouse carried the hCG-PML/RARA transgene, a well-characterized initiator of myeloid leukemia. In the absence of ENU treatment, transgenic F2 mice developed leukemia with higher incidence (79.4% vs 12.5%) and at earlier time points (108 days vs 234 days) than mice in the resistant background. ENU treatment of F2 mice further increased incidence (90.4%) and shortened median survival (171 vs 254 days). We genotyped F2 mice at 384 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms across the genome and performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Thirteen QTLs significantly associated with leukemia-free survival, spleen weight, or white blood cell count were identified on 8 chromosomes. These results suggest that susceptibility to ENU-induced leukemia in mice is a complex trait governed by genes at multiple loci. Improved understanding of genetic risk factors should lead to tailored treatment regimens that reduce risk for patients predisposed to t-AML.