Quantitative evaluation of frequency domain measurements in high density diffuse optical tomography

Guy A. Perkins, Adam T. Eggebrecht, Hamid Dehghani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


SIGNIFICANCE: High density diffuse optical tomography (HD-DOT) as applied in functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is largely limited to continuous wave (CW) data. Using a single modulation frequency, frequency domain (FD) HD-DOT has recently demonstrated better localization of focal activation as compared to CW data. We show that combining CW and FD measurements and multiple modulation frequencies increases imaging performance in fNIRS. AIM: We evaluate the benefits of multiple modulation frequencies, combining different frequencies as well as CW data in fNIRS HD-DOT. APPROACH: A layered model was used, with activation occurring within a cortex layer. CW and FD measurements were simulated at 78, 141, and 203 MHz with and without noise. The localization error, full width half maximum, and effective resolution were evaluated. RESULTS: Across the average of the three metrics, at 141 MHz, FD performed 8.4% better than CW, and the combination of CW and FD was 21.7% better than CW. FD measurements at 203 MHz performed 5% better than 78 MHz. Moreover, the three combined modulation frequencies of FD and CW performed up to 3.92% better than 141 MHz alone. CONCLUSIONS: We show that combining CW and FD measurements offers better performance than FD alone, with higher modulation frequencies increasing accuracy. Combining CW and FD measurements at multiple modulation frequencies yields the best overall performance.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of biomedical optics
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2021


  • brain imaging
  • diffuse optical tomography
  • frequency domain
  • modulation frequency
  • near-infrared spectroscopy
  • resolution


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