Quantifying Patient Investment in Novel Neurological Drug Development

Amanda MacPherson, Elias Gumnit, Charlotte Ouimet, Nora Hutchinson, Karl Kieburtz, Toni S. Pearson, Jonathan Kimmelman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


While the drug development literature provides numerous estimates of the financial costs to bring a new drug to market, the investment of patient-participants in the research process has not been described. Trial participants and their caregivers, like companies, invest time and undertake risk when they participate in prelicense trials. We determined the average number of patient-participants needed to develop a novel neurological drug. We created a cohort of 108 unapproved drugs first tested for efficacy between 2006 and 2011 and used ClinicalTrials.gov to capture enrollment in all subsequent prelicense trials of these drugs over a 9-year period. Our primary outcome was the average number of patients enrolled in prelicense neurological drug trials per drug that ultimately attained FDA approval, including patients who participated in both successful and unsuccessful development efforts. Five drugs (4.6%) were FDA approved, and 66,751 patient-participants were enrolled across successful and unsuccessful drug development efforts, resulting in an average of 13,350 patients for each drug attaining approval (95% CI 7155 to 54,954). Our estimates reveal the substantial amount patients and their caregivers contribute to private drug development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1507-1513
Number of pages7
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2022


  • CNS disorders
  • Clinical trials
  • Drug development
  • Research ethics


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