Purpose: To demonstrate a proof of concept for the measurement of myocardial oxygen extraction fraction (mOEF) by a cardiovascular magnetic resonance technique. Methods: The mOEF measurement was performed using an electrocardiogram-triggered double-echo asymmetric spin-echo sequence with EPI readout. Seven healthy volunteers (22-37 years old, 5 females) were recruited and underwent the same imaging scans at rest on 2 different days for reproducibility assessment. Another 5 subjects (23-37 years old, 4 females) underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance studies at rest and during a handgrip isometric exercise with a 25% of maximal voluntary contraction. Both mOEF and myocardial blood volume values were obtained in septal regions from respective maps. Results: The reproducibility was excellent for the measurements of mOEF in septal myocardium (coefficient of variation: 3.37%) and moderate for myocardial blood volume (coefficient of variation: 19.7%). The average mOEF and myocardial blood volume of 7 subjects at rest were 0.61 ± 0.05 and 11.0 ± 4.3%, respectively. The mOEF agreed well with literature values that were measured by PET in healthy volunteers. In the exercise study, there was no significant change in mOEF (0.61 ± 0.06 vs 0.62 ± 0.07) or myocardial blood volume (12 ± 6% vs 13 ± 4%) from rest to exercise, as expected. Conclusion: The implemented cardiovascular magnetic resonance method shows potential for the quantitative assessment of mOEF in vivo. Future technical work is needed to improve image quality and to further validate mOEF measurements.
- cardiovascular magnetic resonance
- handgrip exercise
- myocardial blood volume
- oxygen extraction fraction