In 2006, breast cancer was the third leading cause of death in American women; however, more women survive breast cancer than any other type of cancer. As the disease progresses, it is important to know how one's health-related quality of life (QOL) is affected for those who receive treatment, those who survive, and those who remain disease-free. The purpose of this study was to summarize the benefits, challenges, and barriers of QOL measurement for female breast cancer patients. A PubMed literature search was conducted using the terms "quality of life" and "breast cancer." The search was then refined with terms related to QOL assessment instruments. The research team reviewed over 100 of the 2,090 articles identified. From the results, adetailed outline of QOL instruments is presented, and the effectiveness of QOL instruments is discussed. In the current literature review, both generic and breast cancer specific QOL instruments, examining computerized and paper-and-pencil versions, are explained as well as the advantages, acceptability, and problems of these assessments. Potential barriers to implementation are also discussed. The implementation of QOL assessment tools in breast cancer clinical practice is discussed, with evidence detailing how such tools would benefit patients.