Quality assurance for clinical implementation of an electromagnetic tracking system

Lakshmi Santanam, Camille Noel, Twyla R. Willoughby, Jacqueline Esthappan, Sasa Mutic, Eric E. Klein, Daniel A. Low, Parag J. Parikh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


The Calypso Medical 4D localization system utilizes alternating current electromagnetics for accurate, real-time tumor tracking. A quality assurance program to clinically implement this system is described here. Testing of the continuous electromagnetic tracking system (Calypso Medical Technologies, Seattle, WA) was performed using an in-house developed four-dimensional stage and a quality assurance fixture containing three radiofrequency transponders at independently measured locations. The following tests were performed to validate the Calypso system: (a) Localization and tracking accuracy, (b) system reproducibility, (c) measurement of the latency of the tracking system, and (d) measurement of transmission through the Calypso table overlay and the electromagnetic array. The translational and rotational localization accuracies were found to be within 0.01 cm and 1.0°, respectively. The reproducibility was within 0.1 cm. The average system latency was measured to be within 303 ms. The attenuation by the Calypso overlay was measured to be 1.0% for both 6 and 18 MV photons. The attenuations by the Calypso array were measured to be 2% and 1.5% for 6 and 18 MV photons, respectively. For oblique angles, the transmission was measured to be 3% for 6 MV, while it was 2% for 18 MV photons. A quality assurance process has been developed for the clinical implementation of an electromagnetic tracking system in radiation therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3477-3486
Number of pages10
JournalMedical physics
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2009


  • Electromagnetic localization
  • Quality assurance
  • Radiation oncology
  • Real-time
  • Tracking systems


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