Pulmonary vein rehabilitation

Othman A. Aljohani, Duncan Mackie, Jeffrey Frazer, Hyeri You, Stephen J. Nageotte, Kanishka Ratnayaka, John W. Moore, Howaida G. El-Said

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) in children is a progressive disease with poor outcomes. Surgical and catheter-based interventions can provide immediate relief of stenosis, but re-stenosis is common, often progressive, and can be fatal. We pursued serial balloon angioplasty (BA) to treat patients with recurrent PVS at our center. We performed a retrospective chart review and data analysis of all children (age < 18 years) with PVS treated with BA at a single center over ten years (2008–2017). Balloon angioplasties (n = 278) were performed on 69 stenotic pulmonary veins in 23 patients during 150 catheterization procedures. The median number of BA was 3 per pulmonary vein (IQR 2–7, range 1–20) and the median number of catheterization procedures was 5 per patient (IQR 2–9, range 2–23). The median age of the first BA was 4.7 months (IQR 2.9–13.8, range 2–65.3). The median follow-up duration was 2.6 years (IQR 1.4–7.1, range 0.42–9.6). 17 veins were stented with 18 stents (15 bare-metal and 3 drug-eluting). There were no procedural deaths or adverse outcomes requiring surgical intervention. 26 veins underwent subsequent planned surgical revision. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates (from first BA) were 78%, 70%, and 70%, respectively. In conclusion, for children with PVS, serial balloon angioplasty as a bridge to resolution, stenting, or surgical repair resulted in favorable outcomes. Further prospective studies comparing the outcomes of different treatment strategies are needed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101277
JournalProgress in Pediatric Cardiology
StatePublished - Mar 2021


  • Congenital heart disease
  • Pulmonary vein stenosis
  • Serial balloon angioplasty
  • Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection


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