Patients with pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital heart disease make up an increasing proportion of the total pulmonary hypertension population who bring with them added complexity because of underlying anatomical and hemodynamic abnormalities. Currently, no consensus recommendations are available on how to best manage this group of patients for either the primary cardiologist or pulmonary hypertension subspecialist, including timing of referral. The purposes of this document are (1) to describe the various pulmonary hypertension groups and subgroups associated with congenital heart disease, (2) to describe imaging modalities used in patient evaluation, (3) to elucidate medical and surgical management considerations, (4) to highlight disparities within this population, and (5) to identify gaps and future research needs of patients with pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital heart disease.
- AHA Scientific Statements
- congenital heart disease
- pediatric pulmonary hypertension
- pulmonary arterial hypertension