Background: Pulmonary carcinoid tumorlet (PCT) is defined as small proliferation of neuroendocrine cells that invade the adjacent basement membrane. It is often associated with chronic pulmonary inflammatory processes. However, the characteristics of PCT in end-stage lung diseases remain unclear. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of the explanted lungs after transplantation at our institution between January 1999 and October 2020. Patients who underwent re-transplantation were excluded. Results: Pulmonary carcinoid tumorlet was incidentally discovered in the explanted lungs from 15 patients (1.1%) out of 1367 lung transplants performed during the study period. Nine patients (60.0 %) were women, with a median age of 59 years (IQR: 57-62) at transplant. Underlying pulmonary indications for lung transplantation were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (9/15, 60.0%), interstitial lung disease (2/15, 13.0%), pulmonary vascular disease (2/15, 13.0%), alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (1/15, 7.0%), and bronchiectasis (1/15, 7.0%). Of the patients who underwent bilateral lung transplantation (13/15, 86.7%), PCT was found in the right lung in 10 patients (10/13, 76.9%). Thirteen patients had one lesion, 1 patient had 2 lesions and 1 patient had multiple lesions. Conclusion: Our study shows that PCT is generally uncommon, but when it occurs, it occurs more frequently on the right side and in female patients with end-stage pulmonary disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be a predisposing factor for developing PCT.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)446-448
Number of pages3
JournalTransplantation Proceedings
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2023


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