Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify psychosocial resources and barriers to self-management among African American adolescents with type 2 diabetes and their mothers. Methods: African American adolescents (n = 10) aged 14 to 19 years old with type 2 diabetes for >1 year and their mothers (n = 10) were recruited from the pediatric diabetes clinic of a large medical center practice. Participants were independently interviewed and responded to a series of open-ended questions concerning illness experiences and resources and barriers to diabetes self-management. This study used a modified grounded theory approach to data coding and analysis. Results: Adolescents and mothers shared similar perceptions of resources and barriers to self-management. Resources included mother's role as the primary support person, emergence of greater self-efficacy and coping over time, family recognition of the seriousness of diabetes, and the presence of supportive peers. Barriers included comorbidity, dietary and other regimen challenges, negative peer influences, and financial problems. Conclusions: Resources and barriers identified in this study represent the multiple contexts that influence type 2 diabetes (eg, individual, family, peer, economic, and cultural).