Protocol to evaluate an enterprise-wide initiative to increase access to lung cancer screening in the Veterans Health Administration

Jennifer A. Lewis, Lucy B. Spalluto, Claudia I. Henschke, David F. Yankelevitz, Samuel M. Aguayo, Providencia Morales, Rick Avila, Carolyn M. Audet, Beth Prusaczyk, Christopher J. Lindsell, Carol Callaway-Lane, Robert S. Dittus, Timothy J. Vogus, Pierre P. Massion, Heather M. Limper, Sunil Kripalani, Drew Moghanaki, Christianne L. Roumie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Introduction: The Veterans Affairs Partnership to increase Access to Lung Screening (VA-PALS) is an enterprise-wide initiative to implement lung cancer screening programs at VA medical centers (VAMCs). VA-PALS will be using implementation strategies that include program navigators to coordinate screening activities, trainings for navigators and radiologists, an open-source software management system, tools to standardize low-dose computed tomography image quality, and access to a support network. VAMCs can utilize strategies according to their local needs. In this protocol, we describe the planned program evaluation for the initial 10 VAMCs participating in VA-PALS. Materials and methods: The implementation of programs will be evaluated using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to ensure broad contextual guidance. Program evaluation measures have been developed using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework. Adaptations of screening processes will be assessed using the Framework for Reporting Adaptations and Modifications to Evidence Based Interventions. Measures collected will reflect the inner settings, estimate and describe the population reached, adoption by providers, implementation of the programs, report clinical outcomes and maintenance of programs. Analyses will include descriptive statistics and regression to evaluate predictors and assess implementation over time. Discussion: This theory-based protocol will evaluate the implementation of lung cancer screening programs across the Veterans Health Administration using scientific frameworks. The findings will inform plans to expand the VA-PALS initiative beyond the original sites and can guide implementation of lung cancer screening programs more broadly.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)151-161
Number of pages11
JournalClinical Imaging
StatePublished - May 2021


  • Implementation science
  • Lung cancer screening
  • Program evaluation
  • Veterans


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