The mediator(s) and mechanism(s) of acute-phase protein synthesis in the liver following injury and sepsis are not fully known. Elevated plasma levels of the catabolic hormones cortisol, glucagon, and epinephrine have been reported in trauma and sepsis. In previous reports, when these hormones were infused simultaneously (triple hormone infusion), several, but not all, of the metabolic alterations characteristic of sepsis occurred. In the current investigation, the effect of triple hormone infusion on hepatic protein synthesis was studied. Rats were infused intravenously during 16 hours with a solution containing corticosterone (4.2 mg/kg/h), glucagon (2.5 μg/kg/h), and epinephrine (6 μg/kg/h). Control animals were infused with a corresponding volume of vehicle. Total hepatic protein synthesis in vivo was measured with a flooding dose technique using [14C]-leucine. The synthesis of total secretory proteins and of the individual proteins albumin, complement component C3, and α1-acid glycoprotein was measured in isolated, perfused liver using [3H]-leucine and a recirculating technique. Urinary excretion of nitrogen and plasma concentration of glucose were higher and plasma total amino acid concentration was lower in hormone-infused than in control rats. Total hepatic protein synthesis in vivo, expressed as the proportion of the protein pool that was replaced each day, was increased from 39% ± 2% per day to 48% ± 3% per day (P < .05) by hormone infusion, but synthesis of secretory proteins in perfused liver was not significantly altered. The results suggest that although total hepatic protein synthesis may be increased by catabolic hormones, other mediator(s) are probably responsible for the stimulation of acute-phase protein synthesis in sepsis.