Protein Footprinting by Carbenes on a Fast Photochemical Oxidation of Proteins (FPOP) Platform

Bojie Zhang, Don L. Rempel, Michael L. Gross

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Protein footprinting combined with mass spectrometry provides a method to study protein structures and interactions. To improve further current protein footprinting methods, we adapted the fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP) platform to utilize carbenes as the footprinting reagent. A Nd-YAG laser provides 355 nm laser for carbene generation in situ from photoleucine as the carbene precursor in a flow system with calmodulin as the test protein. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is appropriate to analyze the modifications produced in this footprinting. By comparing the modification extent of apo and holo calmodulin on the peptide level, we can resolve different structural domains of the protein. Carbene footprinting in a flow system is promising.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)552-555
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2016


  • Calmodulin
  • Carbene
  • Fast Photochemical Oxidation of Proteins (FPOP)
  • Mass spectrometry
  • Photoleucine
  • Protein footprinting


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