Blocking interactions between PD-1 and PD-L1 opens a new era of cancer treatment involving immunity modulation. Although most immunotherapies use monoclonal antibodies, small-molecule inhibitors offer advantages. To facilitate development of small-molecule therapeutics, we implemented a rapid approach to characterize the binding interfaces of small-molecule inhibitors with PD-L1. We determined its interaction with a synthetic macrocyclic peptide by using two mass spectrometry-based approaches, hydrogen-deuterium exchange and fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP), and corroborated the findings with our X-ray structure of the PD-L1/macrocycle complex. Although all three approaches show that the macrocycle binds directly to PD-L1 over the regions of residues 46-87 and 114-125, the two protein footprinting approaches show additional binding at the N-terminus of PD-L1, and FPOP reveals some critical binding residues. The outcomes not only show the binding regions but also demonstrate the utility of MS-based footprinting in probing protein/ligand inhibitory interactions in cancer immunotherapy.