Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) participates in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. Increasing evidence indicates that intravascular cell-derived PDI plays an important role in the initiation and progression of cardiovascular diseases, including thrombosis and vascular inflammation. Recent studies with PDI conditional knockout mice have advanced our understanding of the function of cell-specific PDI in disease processes. Furthermore, the identification and development of novel small-molecule PDI inhibitors has led into a new era of PDI research that transitioned from the bench to bedside. In this review, we will discuss recent findings on the regulatory role of PDI in cardiovascular disease.