3 Scopus citations


Hydrogels made from proteins are attractive materials for diverse medical applications, as they are biocompatible, biodegradable, and amenable to chemical and biological modifications. Recent advances in protein engineering, synthetic biology, and material science have enabled the fine-tuning of protein sequences, hydrogel structures, and hydrogel mechanical properties, allowing for a broad range of biomedical applications using protein hydrogels. This article reviews recent progresses on protein hydrogels with special focus on those made of microbially produced proteins. We discuss different hydrogel formation strategies and their associated hydrogel properties. We also review various biomedical applications, categorized by the origin of protein sequences. Lastly, current challenges and future opportunities in engineering protein-based hydrogels are discussed. We hope this review will inspire new ideas in material innovation, leading to advanced protein hydrogels with desirable properties for a wide range of biomedical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4988
Issue number13
StatePublished - Jul 2023


  • hydrogels
  • microbial expression
  • protein hydrogel
  • protein polymers
  • recombinant proteins
  • synthetic biology


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