Prostate-specific membrane antigen ligand positron emission tomography in men with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

Wolfgang P. Fendler, Manuel Weber, Amir Iravani, Michael S. Hofman, Jeremie Calais, Johannes Czernin, Harun Ilhan, Fred Saad, Eric J. Small, Matthew R. Smith, Paola M. Perez, Thomas A. Hope, Isabel Rauscher, Anil Londhe, Angela Lopez-Gitlitz, Shinta Cheng, Tobias Maurer, Ken Herrmann, Matthias Eiber, Boris Hadaschik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

108 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: Systemic androgen-signaling inhibition added to ongoing androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) improved clinical outcomes in patients with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer without detectable metastases by conventional imaging (nmCRPC). Prostate-specific membrane antigen ligand positron emission tomography (PSMA-PET) detects prostate cancer with superior sensitivity to conventional imaging, but its performance in nmCRPC remains largely unknown. We characterized cancer burden in high-risk patients with nmCRPC using PSMA-PET. Experimental Design: We retrospectively included 200 patients with nmCRPC, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >2 ng/mL, and high risk for metastatic disease [PSA doubling time (PSADT) of ≤10 months and/or Gleason score of ≥8] from six high-volume PET centers. We centrally reviewed PSMA-PET detection rate for pelvic disease and distant metastases (M1). We further evaluated SPARTAN patients stratified by risk factors for PSMA-PET-detected M1 disease. Results: PSMA-PET was positive in 196 of 200 patients. Overall, 44% had pelvic diseases, including 24% with local prostate bed recurrence, and 55% had M1 disease despite negative conventional imaging. Interobserver agreement was very high (k: 0.81–0.91). PSA ≥ 5.5 ng/mL, locoregional nodal involvement determined by pathology (pN1), prior primary radiation, and prior salvage radiotherapy independently predicted M1 disease (all P < 0.05). Conclusions: PSMA-PET detected any disease in nearly all patients and M1 disease in 55% of patients previously diagnosed with nmCRPC, including subgroups with PSADT of ≤10 months and Gleason score of ≥8. The value of PSMA-PET imaging for treatment guidance should be tested in future studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7448-7454
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Cancer Research
Volume25
Issue number24
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 15 2019

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