Although the contribution of lifestyle and environment (non-genetic factors) to prostate carcinogenesis is indicated by international variation in prostate cancer occurrence and migration studies, no conclusive modifiable risk factors have yet been identified. One possible reason for this may be the dearth of epidemiological research on exposures experienced early in life, when the immature prostate may be more susceptible to carcinogenic exposures. In this Opinion article, we summarize the rationale for studying early-life exposures, describe the small body of early-life research and its associated challenges, and point to solutions for future research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)208-218
Number of pages11
JournalNature Reviews Cancer
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2013


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