Purpose: We conducted a prospective, in silico study to evaluate the feasibility of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-guided stereotactic adaptive radiation therapy (CT-STAR) for the treatment of ultracentral thoracic cancers (NCT04008537). We hypothesized that CT-STAR would reduce dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with nonadaptive stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) while maintaining adequate tumor coverage. Methods and Materials: Patients who were already receiving radiation therapy for ultracentral thoracic malignancies underwent 5 additional daily CBCTs on the ETHOS system as part of a prospective imaging study. These were used to simulate CT-STAR, in silico. Initial, nonadaptive plans (PI) were created based on simulation images and simulated adaptive plans (PA) were based on study CBCTs. 55 Gy/5 fractions was prescribed, with OAR constraint prioritization over PTV coverage under a strict isotoxicity approach. PI were applied to patients’ anatomy of the day and compared with daily PA using dose-volume histogram metrics, with selection of superior plans for simulated delivery. Feasibility was defined as completion of the end-to-end adaptive workflow while meeting strict OAR constraints in ≥80% of fractions. CT-STAR was performed under time pressures to mimic clinical adaptive processes. Results: Seven patients were accrued, 6 with intraparenchymal tumors and 1 with a subcarinal lymph node. CT-STAR was feasible in 34 of 35 simulated fractions. In total, 32 dose constraint violations occurred when the PI was applied to anatomy-of-the-day across 22 of 35 fractions. These violations were resolved by the PA in all but one fraction, in which the proximal bronchial tree dose was still numerically improved through adaptation. The mean difference between the planning target volume and gross total volume V100% in the PI and the PA was –0.24% (–10.40 to 9.90) and –0.62% (–11.00 to 8.00), respectively. Mean end-to-end workflow time was 28.21 minutes (18.02-50.97). Conclusions: CT-STAR widened the dosimetric therapeutic index of ultracentral thorax SBRT compared with nonadaptive SBRT. A phase 1 protocol is underway to evaluate the safety of this paradigm for patients with ultracentral early-stage NSCLC.