Properties of an entropy-based signal receiver with an application to ultrasonic molecular imaging

M. S. Hughes, J. E. McCarthy, J. N. Marsh, J. M. Arbeit, R. G. Neumann, R. W. Fuhrhop, K. D. Wallace, D. R. Znidersic, B. N. Maurizi, S. L. Baldwin, G. M. Lanza, S. A. Wickline

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations

Abstract

Qualitative and quantitative properties of the finite part, Hf, of the Shannon entropy of a continuous waveform f (t) in the continuum limit are derived in order to illuminate its use for waveform characterization. Simple upper and lower bounds on Hf, based on features of f (t), are defined. Quantitative criteria for a priori estimation of the average-case variation of Hf and log Ef, where Ef is the signal energy of f (t) are also derived. These provide relative sensitivity estimates that could be used to prospectively choose optimal imaging strategies in real-time ultrasonic imaging machines, where system bandwidth is often pushed to its limits. To demonstrate the utility of these sensitivity relations for this application, a study designed to assess the feasibility of identification of angiogenic neovasculature targeted with perfluorocarbon nanoparticles that specifically bind to αv β3 -integrin expression in tumors was performed. The outcome of this study agrees with the prospective sensitivity estimates that were used for the two receivers. Moreover, these data demonstrate the ability of entropy-based signal receivers when used in conjunction with targeted nanoparticles to elucidate the presence of αv β3 integrins in primordial neovasculature, particularly in acoustically unfavorable environments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3542-3557
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of the Acoustical Society of America
Volume121
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 2007

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