Despite the improved understanding of the molecular and genetic heterogeneity of glioblastoma, there is still an unmet need for better therapeutics, as treatment approaches have remained unchanged in recent years. Research into the role of the immune microenvironment has generated enthusiasm for testing immunotherapy (specifically, immune checkpoint inhibitors). However, to date, trials of immunotherapy in glioblastoma have not demonstrated a survival advantage. Combination approaches aimed at optimally inducing response to immune checkpoint inhibitors with radiotherapy are currently being investigated. Herein, the authors describe their experience of the potential benefit and clinical outcomes of using combination pembrolizumab (an immune checkpoint inhibitor) and laser interstitial thermal therapy in a case series of patients with recurrent IDH-wild-type glioblastoma.
- immune checkpoint inhibitors
- laser interstitial thermal therapy