Therapy for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) remains challenging since there are no antiviral therapies available for JC virus. Immune reconstitution has improved the prognosis in many settings where PML occurs, but it often is not possible in PML patients with hematologic malignancies. We describe the first biopsy proven PML case where the PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab appears to have stimulated immune activation resulting in effective control of PML in a patient with hematologic malignancy. This report supports further investigation of the utility of checkpoint inhibitors for treating PML where other immune reconstitution options are not available.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of NeuroVirology
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019


  • JC virus
  • Nivolumab
  • PD-1 inhibitor
  • PML
  • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy


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