Risk factors for progression of kidney disease include hypertension, proteinuria, male sex, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, smoking, high-protein diets, phosphate retention, and metabolic acidosis. Angiotensin II production upregulates the expression of transforming growth factor-β1, tumor necrosis factor-α, nuclear factor-κB, and several adhesion molecules and chemoattractants. In addition to angiotensin, other vasoactive compounds, such as thromboxane A2, endothelin, and prostaglandins, are upregulated. Treatment with one of several growth factors may ameliorate the progression of kidney disease: insulin-like growth factor-1, hepatocyte growth factor, and bone morphogenetic protein-7.
- Angiotensin II
- Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)
- Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)
- Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)