Objectives: The prognostic value of echocardiographic atrial and ventricular strain imaging in patients with biopsy-proven cardiac amyloidosis was assessed. Background: Although left ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS) is known to be predictive of outcome, the additive prognostic value of left (LA), right atrial (RA), and right ventricular (RV) strain is unclear. Methods: One hundred thirty-six patients with cardiac amyloidosis and available follow-up data were studied by endomyocardial biopsy, noncardiac biopsy with supportive cardiac imaging, or autopsy confirmation. One hundred nine patients (80%) had light-chain, 23 (17%) had transthyretin, and 4 (3%) had amyloid A type cardiac amyloidosis. GLS, RV free wall strain, peak longitudinal LA strain, and peak longitudinal RA strain were measured from apical views. Clinical and routine echocardiographic data were compared. All-cause mortality was followed (median 5 years). Results: Strain data were feasible for GLS in 127 (93%), LA strain in 119 (88%), RA strain in 117 (86%), and RV strain in 102 (75%). Strain values from all 4 chambers were significantly associated with survival. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for low median strain values were as follows: GLS, HR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.8 (p < 0.01); LA strain, HR: 7.5; 95% CI: 3.8 to 14.7 (p < 0.001); RA strain, HR: 3.5; 95% CI: 2.0 to 6.2 (p < 0.001); and RV free wall strain, HR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.5 to 5.1 (p < 0.001). Peak longitudinal LA strain and RV strain remained independently associated with survival in multivariable analysis. Peak LA strain had the strongest association with survival (p < 0.001), and LA strain combined with GLS and RV free wall strain had the highest prognostic value (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Strain data from all 4 chambers had important prognostic associations with survival in patients with biopsy-confirmed cardiac amyloidosis. Peak longitudinal LA strain was particularly associated with prognosis. Atrial and ventricular strain have promise for clinical utility.
- Cardiac amyloidosis
- Myocardial strain imaging