Background: Platelets are recognized as key immune effectors, but they are targets of bacterial virulence factors. In the present study, we aimed to examine the relationship between early platelet dynamics and the outcome of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). Method: Electronic medical records of adult patients hospitalized for SAB between July 2012 and November 2020 were retrospectively reviewed for relevant demographic, laboratory, and clinical data. The outcome endpoints were mortality and microbial persistence. Results: Among the 811 patients evaluated, 29% experienced thrombocytopenia on Day 1. Platelet count nadir occurred on Days 2–3 following SAB onset, and Day 4 was a determining point of platelet count trajectory and mortality. Mortality risk was 6% or less for those with normal platelet count by Day 4 regardless of whether they experienced thrombocytopenia on Day 1, but the risk increased to 16–21% for those who experienced thrombocytopenia on Day 4 regardless of whether they had normal platelet count on Day 1 or sustained thrombocytopenia. The duration of bacteremia was prolonged by one day (median 3 d vs. 2 d) for those with sustained thrombocytopenia compared to those without. Conclusion: Early platelet dynamics during SAB have prognostic significance and represent an early window for potential platelet-directed therapeutic interventions to improve outcome.
- Staphylococcus aureus