Sterile inflammation occurs in acute conditions, such as ischemia reperfusion injury and crystal-induced arthritis, as well as with chronic diseases, such as particleinduced lung diseases and atherosclerosis. The triggers of sterile inflammation are still being identified, and the pathways that transduce sterile inflammatory signals are not completely clear. Most of the innate immune pathways that sense infection have been implicated in sterile inflammation, although distinct signaling pathways of sterile inflammation exist. Whether immune pathology ensues after sterile inflammation depends on the balance of induced inflammatory and resolution pathways. Further identification of the molecular mechanisms of sterile inflammation will lead to novel therapeutics to treat a range of diseases.